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For the whole analysed period (30 August - 5 September) Andrzej Duda and Vladimir Putin were the most popular heads of state among Polish Internet users.

  1. President Duda was referred to especially due to Day of Solidarity and Freedom in Poland (August 31) and in the context of 83rd anniversary of the outbreak of World War II.

  2. Putin appeared mostly in the context of war crimes committed in Ukraine and energy blackmail against Europe.

  3. Macron gained in popularity after his remarks about EU policy towards Ukraine French President underlined the need of EU unity, saying i.a. that the EU mustn’t align itself with 'warmongers'. These comments fueled many disinformation threads.

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